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Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability: Social(Chapter V)

Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability: Social(Chapter V)

THE CURSE OF CASTE

As I have said in the first Essay there cannot be a caste in the single number. Caste can exist only in the plural number. Caste to be real can exist only by disintegrating a group. The genius of caste is to divide and to disintegrate. It is also the curse of caste. Few, however, realise how great is this curse of caste.

It is therefore necessary to illustrate the vastness of this curse by reference to the disintegration brought about by caste. It is impossible to deal with each caste to show the evolution of its disintegration. One must content himself with presenting the caste history of one caste. I take the case of the Brahmins who have been the originators and upholders of caste to show how they themselves have been overwhelmed by what I call the curse of caste. The Brahmins of India are divided into two distinct fraternities. One fraternity is called the Dravidas and the other fraternity is called the Gaudas.

It must not, however, be supposed that the Dravidas and Gaudas are single homogeneous unit. They are divided and sub-divided in units so numerous that it is difficult to imagine their numbers unless one has actual lists of their sub-divisions before his eye. In the following pages an attempt is made to give the list of castes and sub-castes into which each sub-division of the fraternity is divided.

 

I

THE DRAVIDA BRAHMINS

 

The fraternity of Dravidas consists of five sub-divisions who are collectively styled the Panch Dravidas. The five sub-divisions are called:

(1) The Maharashtrians

(2) The Andhras

(3) The Dravidians (proper)

(4) The Karnatakas

(5) The Gurjaras

We may next proceed to note the castes and sub-castes into which each of these sub-divisions of the Panch Dravidas have disintegrated.

 

1. THE MAHARASHTRA BRAHMINS

 

The Maharashtra Brahmins have among them the following castes and sub-castes:

(1) The Deshasthas, (2) The Konkanasthas, (3) The Karhadas, (4) The Kanvas, (5) The Madhyandinas, (6) The Padhyas, (7) The Devarukhas, (8) The Palashas, (9) The Kirvantas, (10) The Tirgulas, (11) The Javalas, (12) The Abhiras, (13) The Savashas, (14) Kastas, (15) The Kunda Golakas, (16) The Randa Golakas, (17) The Brahmana-Jais, (18) The Soparas, (19) The Khistis, (20) The Huseinis, (21) The Kalankis, (22) The Maitrayaniyas, (23) The  Varadis-Madhyandin-YaJ'ur-Vedi,  (24) The Varadis-Madhyandin-Rig Vedi, (25) The Jhade. The Shenvis are further divided into nine sub-castes called (26) Narvankar,         (27) Keloskar,         (28) Bardeshkar, (29) Kudaldeshkar,      (30) Pednekar,      (31) Bhalavelekar, (32) Kushasthali, (33) Khadape and (34) Khajule.

 

2. THE ANDHRA BRAHMINS

 

The following is the list of castes and sub-castes which make up the Andhra Brahmins—

(1) The Varnasalus, (2) The Kamarukubi, (3) The Karanakamulu, (4) The Madhyandians, (5) The Tailangas, (6) The Murakanadus, (7) The Aradhyas, (8) The Yajnavalkyas, (9) The Kasaranadu, (10) The Velandus, (11) The Venginadus, (12) The Vedinadus, (13) The    Samavedis,    (14) The    Ramanujis,    (15) The Madhavacharis, (16) The Niyogis.

 

3. THE TAMIL BRAHMINS

 

They consist of the following castes— (1) The Rig-Vedis, (2) The Krishna Yajur-Vedis, (3) The Shukia Yajur-Vedis—Madhyandinas, (4) The Shukla Yajur-Vedis-Kanvas, (5) The Sama Vedis, (6) The Atharva, (9) The Vaishnavas, (10) The Vira Vaishnavas, (11) The Shri-Vaishnavas, (12) The Bhagvatas, (13) The Shaktas.

 

4. THE KARNATIK BRAHMINS

 

They include the following castes—

(1) The Rig Vedis, (2) The Krishna Yajur-Vedis, (3) The Shukia Yajur-Vedis Madhyandinas, (4) The Shukla Yajur-Vedis Kanvas, (5) The Sama Vedis, (6) The Kume Brahmins and (7) The Nagara Brahmins.

 

5. THE GURJARA BRAHMINS

 

The list of castes which compose the Gurjara Brahmins is as follows : 1. The Andichya Brahmins. They are divided into the following

sub-castes:

(1) Siddhpura Andichya, (2) Sihor Andichya, (3) Tolkiya Andhichya,    (4) Kunbigor,    (5) Inochigor,   (6) Darjigor, (7) Grandhrapagor,   (8) Koligor,   (9) Marwadi   Andichya, (10) Kachhi Andichya, (11) Vagdiya Andichya. II. The Nagar Brahmins. The following are the sub-castes of the

Nagar Brahmins:

(12) The Vadanagar Brahmins, (13) The Vishalnagar Brahmins, (14) The Sathodra Brahmins, (15) The Prashnoras, (16) The Krishnoras, (17) The Chitrodas, (18) The Baradas. There are also three other divisions among the Nagar Brahmins. They are called—

(19) Gujarathi Nagars, (20) Sorathi Nagars and (21) Nagars of other Towns.

III. The Girnar Brahmins. They are divided among the following

castes: (22) The Junagadhya Girnars, (23) The Chorvada Girnars,

(24) The Ajakiyas.

IV. The Mevadas Brahmins. They are distributed among the following castes:

(25) The Bhata Mevadas, (26) The Trivadi Mevadas, (27) The Charosi Mevadas.

V. The Deshavala Brahmins. They have one sub-caste which is called:

(46) The Deshavala Brahman Surati. VI. The Rayakavala Brahmins. They are divided into two subcastes :

(47) The Navas (new ones) and (48) The Mothas (old ones).

VII. The Khedvala Brahmins. They are divided into five subcastes :

(49) The Khedvala Bajas, (50) The Khedvala Bhitaras, (51) The Khedva Bajas, (52) The Khedva Bhitaras.

VIII. The Modha Brahmins. They are divided into eleven subcastes :

(53) The Trivedi Modhas, (54) The Chaturvedi Modhas, (55) The Agihans Modhas, (56) The Tripal Modhas, (57) The Khijadiya Sanvana Modhas, (58) The Ekadashdhra Modhas, (59) The Tandulotha Modhas, (60) The Utanjaliya Modhas, (61) The Jethimal Modhas, (62) The Chaturvedi Dhinoja Modhas, (63) The Dhinoja Modhas.

IX. The Shrimali Brahmins. The Shrimali Brahmins are divided

into the following castes:

(64) The Marwadi Shrimali, (65) The Mevadi Shrimali, (66) The Kachhi Shrimali, (67) The Kathiavadi Shrimali, (68) The Gujarathi Shrimali. The Gujarathi Shrimali are further sub-divided into

(69) Ahamadabadi    Shrimali,    (70) Surati    Shrimali, (71) Ghoghari Shrimali and (72) The Khambhati Shrimali. The Khambhati Shrimali are again sub-divided into—

(73) Yajurvedi    Khambhati   Shrimali,   (74) Samavedi Khambhati Shrimali.

X. The Chovisha Brahmins. They are divided into two subcastes : (75) Mota (Great ones), (76) Lahana (small ones).

XI. The Sarasvata Brahmins. They are divided into two subcastes : (77) Sorathiya Sarasvata, (78) Sindhava Sarasvata.

XII. The following is the list of castes of Gujaratha Brahmins which have not developed sub-castes:

(79) The Sachora Brahmins,      (80) The Udambara Brahmins,

(81) The Narsipara Brahmins,    (82) The Valadra Brahmins,

(83) The Pangora Brahmins,      (84) The Nandodra Brahmins,

(85) The Vayada Brahmins,       (86) The Tamil (or Dradvida) Brahmins,

(87) The Rodhavala Brahmins,   (88) The Padmivala Brahmins,

(89) The Gomativala Brahmins, (90) The Itavala Brahmins,

(91) The Medhatavala Brahmins, (92) The Gayavala Brahmins,

(93) The Agastyavala Brahmins, (94) The Pretavala Brahmins,

(95) The Unevala Brahmins,       (96) The Rajavala Brahmins,

(97) The Kanojiya Brahmins,      (98) The Sarvariya Brahmins,

(99) The Kanoliya Brahmins,      (100) The Kharkheliya Brahmins,

(101) The Parvaliaya Brahmins, (102) The Sorathiya Brahmins,

(103) The  Tangamadiya  Brahmins,  (104) The Sanodiya Brahmins,

(105) The Motala Brahmins,       (106) The Jhalora Brahmins,

(107) The Rayapula Brahmins,   (108) The Kapila  Brahmins,

(109) The Akshayamangala Brahmins, (110) The Gugli Brahmins,

(111) The Napala Brahmins,       (112) The Anavala Brahmins,

(113) The Valmika Brahmins,     (114) The Kalinga Brahmins,

(115) The Tailinga Brahmins,      (116) The Bhargava Brahmins,

(117) The Malavi,                      (118) The Banduan Brahmins,

(119) The Bharathana Brahmins, (120) The Pushkarana   Brahmins,

(121) The  Khadayata  Brahmins, (122) The Maru Brahmins,

(123) The Dahima Brahmins,      (124) The Chovisa Brahmins,

(125) The Jambu Brahmins,       (126) The Maratha Brahmins,

(127) The Dadhicha Brahmins,   (128) The Lalata Brahmins,

(129) The Valuta Brahmins,        (130) The Borshidha Brahmins,

(131) The Golavala Brahmins,    (132) The Prayagvala Brahmins,

(133) The Nayakvala Brahmins, (134) The Utkala Brahmins,

(135) The Pallivala Brahmins,     (136) The Mathura Brahmins,

(137) The Maithila Brahmins,      (138) The Kulabha Brahmins,

(139) The Bedua Brahmins,       (140) The Ravavala Brahmins,

(141) The Dashahara Brahmins, (142) The Karnatika Brahmins,

(143) The Talajiya Brahmins,      (144) The Parashariya Brahmins,

(145) The Abhira Brahmins,       (146) The Kundu Brahmins,

(147) The Hirayajiya Brahmins,   (148) The Mastava Brahmins,

(149) The Sthitisha Brahmins,    (150) The Predatvala Brahmins,

(151) The Rampura Brahmins,   (152) The Jila Brahmins,

(153) The Tilotya Brahmins,       (154) The Durmala Brahmins,

(155) The Kodva Brahmins,        (156) The Hanushuna Brahmins,

(157) The Shevada Brahmins,    (158) The Titraga Brahmins,

(159) The Basuladas Brahmins, (160) The Magmarya Brahmins,

(161) The Rayathala Brahmins, (162) The Chapila Brahmins,

(163) The Baradas Brahmins,    (164) The Bhukaniya Brahmins,

(165) The Garoda Brahmins,      (166) The Taporana Brahmins. II

II

THE GAUDA BRAHMINS

Like the Dravida Brahmins the Gauda Brahmins also consist of a fraternity of five different groups of Brahmins. These five groups are known as:

(1) The Sarasvata Brahmins,     (2) The Kanyakubja Brahmins,

(3) The Gauda Brahmins,          (4) The Utkala Brahmins,

(5) The Maithila Brahmins.

An inquiry into the internal structure of each of these five groups of Panch Gaudas reveals the same condition as is found in the case of the five groups, which form the fraternity of Panch Dravidas. The only question is whether the internal divisions and sub-divisions are fewer or larger than are found among the Panch Dravidas. For this purpose it is better to take each group separately.

THE SARASVATA BRAHMINS

The Sarasvata Brahmins fall into three territorial sections:

(1) The Sarasvatas of the Punjab, (2) The Sarasvatas of Kashmir and (3) The Sarasvatas of Sindh.

 

1. THE SARASVATAS OF PUNJAB

There are three sub-sections of the Sarasvatas of the Punjab:

(A) Sarasvatas of the districts of Lahore, Arnritsar, Batala, Gurdaspur, Jalandar, Multan, Jhang and Shahpur. They are again divided into High Caste and Low Caste.

 

HIGH CASTES

 

(1) Navale, (2) Chuni, (3) Ravade, (4) Sarvaliye, (5) Pandit,

(6) Tikhe, (7) Jhingan, (8) Kumadiye, (9) Jetle, (10) Mohle or Mole,

(11) Tikhe-A'nde,  (12) Jhingan-Pingan, (13) jetli-Petli,

(14) Kumadiye-Lumadiye,     (15) Mohle-Bohle,     (16) Bage,

(17) Kapuriye,    (18) Bhaturiye,    (19) Maliye,    (20) Kaliye,

(21) Sanda, (22) Pathak, (23) Kural, (24) Bharadwaji,

(25) Joshi, (26) Shori, (27) Tiwadi, (28) Marud, (29) Datta,

(30) Mujhal, (31) Chhibar, (32) Bali, (33) Mohana, (34) Lava,

(35) Vaidya, (36) Prabhakar, (37) Shame-Potre, (38) Bhoja-Potre,

(39.) Singhe-Potre,   (40) Vatte-Potre,   (41) Dhannan-Potre,

(42) Dravade, (43) Gaindhar, (44) Takht Laladi, (45) Shama Dasi,

(46) Setpal (or   Shetpal),   (47) Pushrat,   (48) Bharadvaji,

(49) Katpale, (50) Ghotke, (51) Pukarne.

 

LOWER CLASSES

 

(52) Diddi,   (53) Shridhara,   (54) Vinayaka,   (55) Majju,

(56) Khindariye, (57) Harad, (58) Prabhakar, (59) Vasudeva,

(60) Parashara,    (61) Mohana,    (62) Panjan,    (63) Tivara,

(64) Kapala, (65) Bharkhari, (66) Sodhi, (67) Kaijar,

(68) Sangad, (69) Bharadvaji,   (70) Nage,   (71) Makavar,

(72) Vashishtha, (73) Dangaval,    (74) Jalap,    (75) Tripane,

(76) Bharathe, (77) Bansale, (78) Gangahar, (79) Jotashi,

(80) Rikhi (or Rishi), (81) Mandar, (82) Brahmi, (83) Tejpal,

(84) Pal, (85) Rupal, (86) Lakhanpal,   (87) Ratanpal,

(88) Shetpal,   (89) Bhinde, (90) Dhami, (91) Chanan,

(92) Randeha, (93) Bhuta, (94) Rati, (95) Kundi, (96) Hasadhir,

(97) Punj, (98) Sandhi, (99) Bahoye, (100) Virad, (101) Kaland,

(102) Suran, (103) Sudan, (104) Ojhe, (105) Bramha-Sukul,

(106) Hariye, (107) Gajesu, (108) Bhanot, (109) Tinuni, (110) Jalli,

(111) Tole, (112) Jalap, (113) Chitchot, (114) Padhe or Pandhe,

(115) Marud, (116) Laladiye, (117) Tote, (118) Kusarit,

(119) Ramtal,  (120) Kapale,   (121) Masodare, (122) Ratniye,

(123) Chandan, (124) Churavan, (125) Mandahar,

(126) Madhare, (127) Lakarphar, (128) Kund, (129) Kardam,

(130) Dhande,    (131) Sahajpal,    (132) Pabhi,    (133) Rati,

(134) Jaitke,    (135) Daidriye,    (136) Bhatare,    (137) Kali,

(138) Jalpot, (139) Maitra, (140) Sankhatre, (141) Ludra,

(142) Vyasa, (143) Paitu, (144) Kirar, (145) Puje, (146) Isar,

(147) Latta, (148) Dhami, (149) Kalhan, (150) Madarkhamb,

(151) Bedesar. (152) Salvahan,   (153) Dhande,   (154) Marud,

(155) Bature, (156) Joti, (157) Soyari, (158) Tejpal, (159) Kuralpal,

(160) Kalas, (161) Jalap,  (162) Tinmani,  (163) Tanganivate,

(164) Jalpot, (165) Pattu,   (166) Jasrava,   (167) Jayachand,

(168) Sanwal, (169) Agnihotri, (170) Agraphakka, (171) Ruthade,

(172) Bhaji, (173)Kuchhi,   (174)Saili,    (175)Bhambi,

(176)Medu, (177) Mehad,    (178) Yarnye,    (179) Sangar,

(180) Sang, (181) Nehar,   (182) Chakpaliye,   (183) Bijraye,

(184) Narad, (185) Kutwal, (186) Kotpal, (187) Nabh, (188) Nad,

(189) Parenje, (190) Kheti, (191) A'ri, (192) Chavhe, (193) Bibde,

(194) Bandu, (195) Machhu, (196) Sundar, (197) Karadage,

(198) Chhibbe, (199) Sadhi,   (200) Tallan,   (201) Karddam,

(202) Jhaman, (203) Rangade,    (204) Bhog,    (205) Pande,

(206) Gande, (207) Pante,    (208) Gandhe,    (209) Dhinde,

(210) Tagale, (211) Dagale, (212) Lahad, (213) Tad, (214) Kayi,

(215) Ludh, (216) Gandar, (217) Mahe, (218) Saili, (219) Bhagi,

(220) Pande, (221) Pipar, (222) Jathee.

 

(B) Sarasvata Brahamins of Kangada and the adjacent Hill Country. These too are divided into High Class and Low Class.

HIGH CASTES

 

(1) Osdi, (2) Pandit Kashmiri, (3) Sotri, (4) Vedve, (5) Naga, (6) Dikshit,

(7) Misri Kashmiri, (8) Madihatu, (9) Panchkarn, (10) Raine, (11) Kurudu,

(12) A'Chariye.

 

LOWER CLASSES

 

(13) Chithu,   (14) Panyalu,   (15) Dumbu,   (16) Dehaidu, (17) Rukhe,

(18) Pambar, (19) Gutre, (20) Dyabhudu, (21) Make,

(22) Prot (Purohita) Jadtotrotiye, (23) Visht Prot, (24) Padhe Saroj,

(25) Padhe Khajure,  (26) Padhe Mahite, (27) Khajure, (28) Chhutwan,

(29) Bhanwal, (30) Rambe, (31) Mangrudiye, (32) Khurvadh, (33) Galvadh,

(34) Dangmar, (35) Chalivale.

(C) Sarasvata Brahmins of Dattarpur, Hoshyarpur and the adjacent Country.

 

These are also divided into High Class and Low Class.

 

1. HIGH CASTES

 

(1) Dogre, (2) Sarmayi, (3) Dube, (4) Lakhanapal, (5) Padhe Dholbalvaiya,

(6) Padhe Ghohasniye, (7) Padhe Dadiye, (8) Padhe Khindadiya, (9) Khajurive.

 

II. LOWER CLASSES

 

(10) Kapahatiye,      (11) Bharadhiyal,      (12) Chaprohiye, (13) Makade,

(14) Kutallidiye,    (15) Sarad,    (16) Dagadu, (17) Vantade,(18) Muchle,

(19) Sammol,(20) Dhose,(21) Bhatol, (22) Rajohad,     (23) Thanik,

(24) Panyal,    (25) Chibbe, (26) Madote,    (27) Misar,    (28) Chhakotar,

(29) Jalreiye, (30) Lahad, (31) Sel, (32) Bhasul, (33) Pandit,

(34) Changhial, (35) Lath, (36) Sand, (37) Lai, (38) Gadottare, (39) Chirnol,

(40) Badhie, (41) Shridhar, (42) Patdu, (43) Juwal, (44) Maite, (45) Kakliye,

(46) Tak, (47) Jhol, (48) Bhadoe, (49) Tandik, (50) Jhummutiyar,

(51) A'l,     (52) Mirat,    (53) Mukati, (54) Dalchallie, (55) Bhatohaye,

(56) Tyahaye, (57) Bhatare.

 

2. THE SARASVATAS OF KASHMIR

 

There are two sub-sections of the Sarasvatas of Kashmir. (A) Sarasvata Brahamans of Jammu, Jasrota and the neighbouring Hill Country.

 

They are divided into three classes. High, Middle and Low.

 

1. HIGH CASTES

 

(1) Amgotre,  (2) Thappe, (3) Dube,  (4) Sapoliye  Padhe, (5) Badiyal,

(6) Kesar, (7) Nadh, (8) Khajure Prahot, (9) Jamval Pandit,   (10) Vaidya,

(11) Lava,   (12) Chibar,   (13) aliye, (14) Mohan, (15) Bambhaval.

 

II. MIDDLE CASTES

 

(16) Raine,    (17) Satotre,    (18) Katotre,    (19) Lalotre, (20) Bhangotre,

(21) Samnotre,    (22) Kashmiri    Pandit, (23) Pandhotre, (24) Vilhanoch,

(25) Badu, (26) Kernaye Pandit, (27) Danal Padhe, (28) Mahite,

(29) Sudhraliye, (30) Bhatiad, (31) Puroch,    (32) Adhotre,    (33) Mishra,

(34) Parashara, (35) Bavagotre, (36) Mansotre, (37) Sudathiye.

 

III. LOWER CLASSES

 

(38) Sudan, (39) Sukhe, (40) Bhure, (41) Chandan, (42) Jalotre,

(43) Nabhotre,   (44) Khadotre,   (45) Sagdol,   (46) Bhuriye,

(47) Baganachhal,   (48) Rajuliye,   (49) Sangde,   (50) Munde,

(51) Surnachal, (52) Ladhanjan, (53) Jakhotre, (54) Lakhanpal,

(55) Gauda    Purohita,    (56) Shashgotre,    (57) Khanotre,

(58) Garoch, (59) Marotre, (60) Upadhe, (61) Khindhaiye Padhe,

(62) Kalandari,     (63) Jarad,     (64) Udihal,     (65) Ghode,

(66) Basnotre,    (67) Barat,    (68) Chargat,    (69) Lavanthe,

(70) Bharangol, (71) Jaranghal, (72) Guhaliye, (73) Dhariancha,

(74) Pindhad, (75) Rajuniye, (76) Badakulive, (77) Sirkhandiye,

(78) Kirpad, (79) Balli, (80) Salurn, (81) Ratanpal, (82) Banotre,

(83) Yantradhari, (84) Dadorich, (85) Bhaloch, (86) Chhachhiale,

(87) Jhangotre,   (88) Magdol,   (89) Phaunphan,   (90) Saroch,

(91) Gudde,    (92) Kirle,    (93) Mansotre,    (94) Thammotre,

(95) Thanmath, (96) Bramiye, (97) Kundan, (98) Gokuliye Gosain,

(99) Chakotre,    (100) Rod,    (101) Bargotre,    (102) Kavde,

(103) Magdiyaliye, (104) Mathar, (105) Mahijiye, (106) Thakure Purohita,

(107) Galhal, (108) Cham, (109) Rod, (110) Labhotre, (111) Redathiye,

(112) Patal, (113) Kamaniye, (114) Gandhargal, (115) Prithvipal,

(116) Madhotre, (117) Kambo, (118) Sarmayi, (119) Bachhal,

(120) Makhotre,   (121) Jad,   (122) Batialiye, (123) Kudidab,

(124) Jambe, (125) Karanathiye, (126) Suthade,  (127) Sigad,

(128) Garadiye, (129) Machhar, (130) Baghotre, (131) Sainhasan,

(132) Utriyal, (133) Suhandiye, (134) Jhindhad, (135) Battal,

(136) Bhainkhare,   (137) Bisgotre,   (138) Jhalu, (139) Dabb,

(140) Bhuta,   (141) Kathialu,   (142) Paladhu, (143) Paladhu,

(144) Jakhotre,   (145) Pange,   (146) Solhe, (147) Suguniye,

(148) Sanhoch,   (149) Duhal,   (150) Bando, (151) Kanungo,

(152) Jhavdu,  (153) Jhaphacu,  (154) Kaliye, (155) Khaphankho.

 

(B) THE SARASVATAS OF KASHMIR [f15]

 

The following is a list of Kashmiri Brahmins.

(1) Kaul, (2) Rajdan, (3) Guriti, (4) Jitish, (5) Dar, (6) Trakari,

(7) Mujhi, (8) Munshi, (9) Butal, (10) Javi, (11) Bajai, (12) Rei,

(13) Hundo, (14) Dipti, (15) Chhichvali, (16) Rugi, (17) Kall,

(18) Sum, (19) Hanji, (20) Hastivali, (21) Mutu, (22) Tikku,

(23) Gais,   (24) Gadi,   (25) Brari,   (26) Ganj,   (27) Vangan,

(28) Vagana, (29) Bhut, (30) Bhairava, (31) Madan, (32) Dina,

(33) Shargal, (34) Hakchar, (35) Hak, (36) Kukar, (37) Chhatari,

(38) Saunpuri,     (39) Matti,     (40) Khush,    (41) Shakdar,

(42) Vaishnava, (43) Kotar, (44) Kak, (45) Kachari, (46) Tote,

(47) Saraph, (48) Gurah, (49) Thanthar, (50) Khar, (51) Thaur,

(52) Teng, (53) Saiyad, (54) Trupuraya, (55) Muthi, (56) Saphai,

(57) Bhan, (58) Vanya, (59) Garial, (60) Thapal, (61) Nauri,

(62) Masaldan,   (63) Mushran,   (64) Turki,   (65) Photedar,

(66) Kharu, (67) Karbangi, (68) Bhath, (69) Kichilu, (70) Chhan,

(71) Mukdam, (72) Khapari, (73) Bulaki, (74) Kar, (75) Jelali,

(76) Saphayu, (77) Batphali, (78) Hukhi, (79) Kukpari, (80) Kali,

(81) Jari, (82) Ganj, (83) Kim, (84) Mundi, (85) Jangal, (86) Jati,

(87) Rakhyas,  (88) Bakayi,  (89) Geri,  (90) Gari,  (91) Kali,

(92) Panji,   (93) Bangi,   (94) Sahib,   (95) Belab,   (96) Rayi,

(97) Galikarap,    (98) Chan,    (99) Kababi,    (100) Yachh,

(101) Jalpuri,   (102) Navashahari,   (103) Kisi,   (104) Dhusi,

(105) Garnkhar,    (106) Tholal,    (107) Pista,    (108) Badam,

(109) Trachhal,   (110) Nadir,   (111) Lidarigari,   (112) Pyal,

(113) Kabi, (114) Chhatri, (115) Vanti, (116) Vatlilu, (117) Khari,

(118) Vas, (119) Lati, (120) Sabanj, (121) Dandi, (122) Raval,

(123) Misari,     (124) Sibbi,     (125) Singari,     (126) Mirje,

(127) Mal, (128) Variki, (129) Jan, (130) Lutari, (131) Parim, (132) Hali,

(133) Nakaib,    (134) Main,    (135) Ambaradar, (136) Ukhal, (137) Kanth,

(138) Bali, (139) Jangali, (140) Duli, (141) Parava, (142) Harkar,

(143) Gagar, (144) Pandit, (145) Jari, (146) Langi, (147) Mukki,

(148) Bihi, (149) Padaur, (150) Pade, (151) Jand,  (152) Teng,

(153) Tund,  (154) Drabi, (155) Dral, (156) Phambbi,    (157) Sajavul,

(158) Bakhshi,    (159) Ugra, (160) Nichvi, (161) Pathan, (162) Vichari,

(163) Unth, (164) Kuchari, (165) Shal, (166) Babi, (167) Makhani,

(168) Labari, (169) Khanya, (170) Khanyakati,     (171) Shah,

(172) Pir,     (173) Khurdi, (174) Khunki, (175) Kalposh, (176) Pishan,

(177) Bishan, (178) Bul, (179) Choki,   (180) Chak,   (181) Rai,

(182) Priti,   (183) Pati, (184) Kichili, (185) Kahi, (186) Jiji, (187) Kilmak,

(188) Salman, (189) Kadalbaju,   (190) Kandahari,   (191) Bali,

(192) Manati, (193) Bankhan,    (194) Hakim,    (195) Garib,

(196) Mandal, (197) Manjaha, (198) Shair, (l99) Nun, (200) Teli,

(201) Khalasi, (202) Chandra, (203) Gadir, (204) Jarabi, (205) Sihari,

(206) Kalvit, (207) Nagari,   (208) Mungvuch,   (209) Khaibari,

(210) Kulli, (211) Kabi, (212) Khosa, (213) Durani, (214) Tuli, (215) Garib,

(216) Gadi, (217) Jati, (218) Rakhsas, (219) Harkar, (220) Grad,

(221) Vagari, etc. etc.

 

3. THE SARASVATAS OF SINDH

The Sarasvatas of Sindh are sub-divided as follows:

(1) Shikarpuris, (2) Barovis, (3) Ravanjahis, (4) Shetpalas

(5) Kuvachandas, and (6) Pokharana.

 

11. THE KANYAKUBJA BRAHMINS

 

The Kanuakubjas take their name from the town Kanoj which was the capital of the Empire. They are also called Kanoujas. There are two denominations of the Kanyakubja Brahamins. One is called the Sarvariyas and the other is called the Kanyakubjas. The Sarvariyas got their name from the ancient river Saryu to the east of which they are principally found. They are a provincial offset from the Kanaujas, with whom they do not now intermarry. The sub-divisions among the Sarvariyas are generally the same as those found among the Kanaujas. It is therefore enough to detail the sub-divisions among the Kanaujas. There are ten divisions of the Kanyakubja Brahmins:

(1) The Mishra, (2) The Shuklas, (3) The Tivaris, (4) The Dubes,

(5) The Pathaks. (6) The Pande, (7) The Upadhya, (8) The Chaubes,

(9) The Dikshitas, (10) The Vajapeyis.

 

Each of these sub-divisions has many sub-divisions. They are mentioned below:

 

1. THE MISHRAS

 

The Mishras consist of the following sections:

(1) The Madhbani, (2) The Champaran, (3) The Patlal or Patlayala,

(4) The Ratanvala, (5) The Bandol, (6) The Matol or Matevala,

(7) The Katariya of the same Veda, (8) The Nagariya of the Vatsa Gotra,

(9) The Payasi of the Vatsa Gotra, (10) The Gana,

(11) The Teunta or the Tevanta, (12) The Marjani, (13) The Gurha,

(14) The Markara, (15) The Jignya, (16) The Parayana, (17) The Pepara,

(18) The Aterva or Atharva, (19) The Hathepara, (20) The Suganti,

(21) The Kheta, (22) The Grambasi, (23) The Birha, (24) The Kausi,

(25) The Kevati, (26) The Raisi, (27) The Bhahajiya, (28) The Belva,

(29) The Usraina, (30) The Kodiya, (31) The Tavakpuri, (32) The Jimalpuri,

(33) The Shringarpuri, (34) The Sitapuri, (35) The Putavha,

(36) The Sirajpuri, (37) The Bhampuri, (38) The Terka,

(39) The Dudhagaumi,  (40) The Ratnapuri, (41) The Sunhanla.

 

2. THE SHUKLAS

 

The Shukias consist of the following sections:

(1) The Khakhayijkhor named from two villages,

(2) The Marnkhor named from two villages, (3) The Tipthi,

(4) The Bhedi, (5) The Bakaruva, (6) The Kanjahi, (7) The Khandail,

(8) The Bela, (9) The Change the Avasthi, (10) TheTevarasi Parbhakar,

(11) The Mehuliyar, (12) The Kharbahiya, (13) The Chanda,

(14) The Grga, (15) The Gautami, (16) The Parasa, (17) TheTara,

(18) The Barikhpuri, (19) The Karyava, (20) The Ajmadgadhya,

(21) The Pichaura, (22) The Masauvas, (23) The Sonthianva,

(24) The Aukin, (25) The Bir, (26) The Gopinath.

 

3. THE TIVARIS

The Tivaris consist of the following sections:

(1) The Lonakhar, (2) The Lonapar, (3) The Munjauna, (4) The Mangraich,

(5) The Jhunadiya, (6) The Sohgaura, (7) The Tara, (8) The Gorakhpuriya,

(9) The Daurava, (10) Pendi, (11) The Sirjam, (12) The Dhatura,

(13) The Panauli, (14) The Nadauli or Tandauli, (15) The Burhiyabari,

(16) The Gurauli, (17) The Jogiya,  (18) The Dikshita, (19) The Sonaura,

(20) The Agori, (21) The Bhargava, (22) The Bakiya, (23) The Kukurgariya,

(24) The Dama, (25) The Gopala, (26) The Govardhana, (27) The Tuke,

(28) The Chattu, (29) The Shivali, (30) The Shakharaj, (31) The Umari,

(32) The Manoha, (33) The Shivarajpur, (34) The Mandhna,

(35) The Sape, (36) The Mandan Tirvedi, (37) The Lahari Tirvedi,

(38) The Jethi Tirvedi.

 

4. THE DUBES

The Dube's consist of the following sections:

(1) The Kanchani, (2) The Singhva, (3) The Belava, (4) The Parava,

(5) The Karaiya, (6) The Bargainya, (7) The Panchani, (8) The Lathiahi,

(9) The Gurdvan, (10) The Methiber, (11) The Barhampuriya,

(12) The Singilava, (13) The Kuchala, (14) The Munjalva, (15) The Paliya,

(16) The Dhegava, (17) The Sisra, (18) The Sinani, (19) The Kudavarye,

(20) The Kataiya, (21) The Panva.

 

5. THE PATHAKS

The following are the sections composing of the Pathakas:

(1) The Sonaura, (2) The Ambatara, (3) The Patakhavaliya,

(4) The Dhigavach, (5) The Bhadari.

6. THE PANDES

The Pande's are divided into the following sections:

(1) The Tirphala or Triphala, (2) The Jorava, (3) The Matainya,

(4) The Toraya, (5) The Nakchauri, (6) The Parsiha, (7) The Sahankol,

(8) The Barhadiya, (9) The Gegas, (10) The Khoriya, (11) The Pichaura,

(12) The Pichaura Payasi, (13) The Jutiya or Jatya, (14) The Itar or Intar,

(15) The Beshtaul or Beshtavala, (16) The Charpand, (17) The Sila,

(18) The Adhurj, (19) The Madariya, (20) The Majgaum,

(21) The Dilipapar, (22) The Payhatya, (23) The Nagav, (24) The Talava,

(25) The Jambu.

 

7. THE UPADHYAS

There are five sections among the Upadhyas:

(1) The Harainya or Hiranya, (2) The Devarainya, (3) The Khoriya,

(4) The Jaithiya, (5) The Dahendra, (6) The Gorat, (7) The Ranisarap,

(8) The Nizamabad, (9) The Dudholiya, (10) The Basgava.

 

8. THE CHAUBES

The principal sub-divisions of the Chaube's are:

(1) The Nayapuras, (2) The Rargadis, (3) The Chaukhar, (4) The Katayas,

(5) The Rampuras, (6) The Paliyas, (7) The Hardaspuras, (8) The Tibaiyas,

(9) The Jamaduvas, (10) The Gargeya.

 

9. THE DIKSHITAS

The Dikshitas have the following sub-divisions:

(1) The Devagaum, (2) The Kakari, (3) The Nevarshiya, (4) The Anter,

(5) The Sukanta, (6) The Chaudhari, (7) The Jujatvatiyas.

 

10. THE VAJAPEYIS

The Vajapeyi's consist of the following sub-divisions:

(1) The Unche, or the High, (2) The Niche or the Low. Besides the divisions and sub-divisions of the Kanyakubjas mentioned above there are Kanyakubjas who are regarded as inferior and therefore isolated from the main divisions and sub-divisions. Among them are the following:

(1) The Samdariya, (2) The Tirguvati, (3) The Bhaurha, (4) The Kabisa,

(5) The   Kevati,   (6) The   Chandravala,   (7) The Kusumbhiya,

(8) The Bisohya, (9) The Kanhali, (10) The Khajuvai, (11) The Kisirman,

(12) The Paihtiya, (13) The Masonad, (14) The Bijara, (15) The Ansnaura.

 

III. THE GAUDA BRAHMINS

The Gauda Brahmins derive their name from the Province and (now ruined) city of Gauda, for long the capital of Bihar and Bengal (the seat of the Angas and Vangas or Bangas). The subdivisions among the Gauda Brahmins are very considerable in number. The most conspicuous of them are the following:

(1)The Gaudas or Kevala Gaudas, (2)Adi-Gaudas,

(3) Shukiavala Adi-Gaudas, (4) Ojhas, (5) Sanadhya Gauda,

(6) Chingalas, (7) Khandevalas, (8) Daymias, (9) Shri-Gaudas,

(10) Tamboli Gaudas, (11) Adi-Shri Gaudas, (12) Gurjar Gaudas,

(13) Tek Bara Gaudas, (14) Chamar Gaudas, (15) Hariyana Gaudas,

(16) Kirtanya Gaudas, (17) Sukul Gaudas.

 

IV. THE UTKAL BRAHMINS

Utkal is the ancient name of Orissa and Utkal Brahmins means Brahmins of Orissa. They are divided into:

(1) The Shashani Brahmins, (2) The Shrotriya Brahmins,

(3) The Panda Brahmins, (4) The Ghatiya Brahmins,

(5) The Mahasthana Brahmins, (6) The Kalinga Brahmins.

 

The Shashani Brahmins have the following sub-divisions.

(1) The Savanta, (2) The Mishra, (3) The Nanda, (4) The Pate,

(5) The Kara, (6) The Acharya, (7) The Satapasti, (8) The Bedi,

(9) The Senapati, (10) The Parnagrahi, (11) The Nishank,

(12) The Rainipati.

 

The Shrotriya Brahmins have the four following sub-divisions:

(1) Shrotriyas, (2) Sonarbani, (3) Teli, (4) Agrabaksha.

 

V. THE MAITHILYA BRAHMINS

The Maithilya Brahmins derive their designation from Mithila, an ancient division of India and which includes a great portion of the modern districts of Tirhut, Saran, Purnea and also parts of the adjacent tracts of Nepal. The following are the sub-divisions of the Maithilya Brahmins:

(1) The Ojhas, (2) The Thakurs, (3) The Mishras, (4) The Puras,

(5) The Shrotriyas, (6) The Bhuiharas.

 

Of these the Mishras have the following sub-sections:

(1) The Chandharis, (2) The Rayas, (3) The Parihastas, (4) The Khanas,

(5) The Kumaras.

 

Ill

OTHER BRAHMINS

 

The Panch Dravidas is a generic name for Brahmins living below the Vindhya and the Panch Gaudas is a generic name for Brahmins living above the Vindhyas. In other words, Panch Gauda is a name for Northern Brahmins and Panch Dravidas, a name for Southern Brahmins. What is, however, to be noted is that the five divisions of Brahmins composing the Northern Fraternity and Southern Fraternity of Brahmins do not exhaust all the divisions of Brahmins living in Northern or Southern India. To complete the subject it is necessary not only to refer to them but also to record their sub-divisions.

 

OTHER BRAHMINS OF SOUTH INDIA

In this category fall the following:

(1)  The Konkani Brahmins [f16]

(2)  (2) The Hubu [f17],

(3)  (3) The Gaukarna [f18],

(4)  The Havika [f19],

(5)  (5) The Tulva [f20],

(6)   The Amma Kodaga [f21],

(7)  The Nambudri

The Nambudri Brahmins are the principal group of Brahmins living in Malabar. Besides the Nambudris there are also other sections of Brahmins. They are:

(1) The Pottis, (2) The Muttadus, (3) The Fledus, (4) The Ramnad-writ Parasahas, (5) The Pattaras, (6) The Ambalvasis.

 

OTHER RAJPUTA BRAHMINS

The Varieties of Rajputa Brahmins not mentioned in the list of Gurjar Brahmins are:

(1) The Shrimalis Brahmins, (2) The Sachoda Brahmins,

(3) The Pallivalar Brahmins, (4) The Nandanas Brahmins,

(5) The Pushakars Brahmins, (6) The Pokhar Sevakas Brahmins,

(7) The Medatvala, (8) The Parikha Brahmins, (9) The Lavanas Brahmins,

(10) The Dakotas Brahmins, (II) The Garudiyas Brahmins,

(12) The Acharjas, (13) The Bura Brahmins, (14) The Kapidas,

(15) The Dahimas, (16) The Khandelvalas, (17) The Divas,

(18) The Sikavadas, (19) The Chamatvalas, (20) The Marus,

(21) The Shrivantas, (22) The Abhiras, (23) The Bhartanas,

(24) The Sanacadas, (25) The Vagadis, (26) The Mewadas,

(27) The Rajgurus, (28) The Bhats, (29) The Charanas.

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